Breeding Program

Our breeding program is unique.

First of all, we don’t EVER treat with anything! I am committed to this path because to me I am following what I see as the natural order of things.

To my teachers, and they are many, thank you for inspiring me. This includes beekeepers (customers as well), mites, diseases, bears and the bees themselves all of which have mentored me and put me in touch with natural cycles.

Our bees are located in Benson and West Haven ,Vermont as well as  on the NY side of southern Lake Champlain between the foothills of the Adirondack’s to the west and valley meadow, wetlands and Lake to the east.

I value the uniqueness of my bee yards as diverse plant life provides nectar and pollen supply for almost all of the growing season.

In contrast our winters can confine the bees for 5 months or more (November – Early March) with subzero temperatures for 7-10 days at a stretch a normal pattern.

Such a long winter has a way of culling tracheal mites, heavy varroa loads, Nosema, dysentery, poorly laying queens, bees that eat too much( a symptom not a cause), etc.

The culling process can then be accomplished by mites, secondary viral and bacterial infections, and environmental stresses (i.e drought, long winters, extreme temperature fluctuations) to mention a few.

Our breeders are selected from the gentlest, most productive colonies that successfully survive two winters and have no disease occurrence.

Be assured we do not order breeder queens from somewhere else and sell you the daughters.

Each new crop of daughter queens must undergo this lengthy assessment before being considered a breeding mother.

This is currently the way I assess though I realize that a decrease in turnover time may be for attaining the desired goals in the shortest time possible.

I don’t count mites or test for hygienic behavior both of which I consider useful tools. I don’t breed for pollen hoarding or color of my queens or bees.

These are what I consider a focus of vision, an attention on particular traits that can easily lead to the exclusion of others. Which is not to say that VSH and hygienic bees are not valuable in my gene pool.

They are not, however, a fixation for me.

I use a wide angled vision with regards to breeding.

I do not pretend to know much about the science of genetics. I can however assess my colonies on two basic criteria. That is simply, do they survive and do they thrive.

This means tracking queens and generally knowing the hives as individuals (yes they are distinctly so). I do realize that what I am breeding for are long-term abilities with regards to mite-resistance.

Another approach is short-term resistance breeding where mites and diseases are given to breeding candidates to speed natural selection to under 1years time. This I will explore in the near future.

I emphasize optimal queen nutrition starting with healthy well fed cell builders that are kept at swarming strength.

Drone mother colonies likewise are attended to with the same detail as nutritional requirements can be intense for maintaining the desired density in mating areas.

I emphasize diversity in my gene pool.

This picture demonstrates diversity within this hive as evidenced in the solid brood pattern.

Increased resilience may result, in part, from having multiple subfamilies of super-sisters within the hive allowing a broad range of potential responses to stresses.

Lastly, or firstly, I love to watch, mesmerized and daydreaming constantly amazed and inspired, by the bees and their connection to the world.


In the case of the honeybee however the breeder is confronted not with isolated individuals but with a society, or to put it more scientifically, with a super-organism, an extraordinarily well regulated and well ordered system, and a structure whose individual parts operate in perfect harmony. Moreover this social organism is in itself immortal, by which I mean that a colony of bees never dies of old age but only because of some misadventure due to external causes.

The first essential point then is that in breeding the honeybee we are dealing not with isolated individuals but with a society. It is however a special kind of society;It is a family with a mother, an indeterminate number of fathers ( who have long been dead), a very large number of daughters and a limited number of males. Since the mother mated with an unknown number of drones (ten on average) each colony contains an indeterminate number of groups of half-sisters. Each group has a common mother but fathers of different ancestry and hence diverse hereditary characteristics. The half and full sisters in each group and their respective influence on making the colony into a unity will be different in each case. Hence a colony of bees is an agglomeration of groups, each with its own definite set of hereditary dispositions, and it is these taken together which bestow on each community of bees its actual peculiar set of characteristics.  [Brother Adam-Breeding The Honeybee ]

You can already begin to see the difficulty in answering the question :

What are my bees?

This is the most popular question I am asked, and I find it impossible to respond in the way that most people are used to hearing. I might as well say my bees are vermont bees, or simply, my bees, neither of which is descriptive enough to relate pertinent qualities.

My queen lineages are roughly 1/3 carniolan based, 1/3 russian based, 1/3 buckfast-ish / italian based.

Qualities of the hive follow the queens lineage more so than the drones (61%) and so my bees attributes will vary on the lineage I breed from.

A more accurate accounting perhaps derives from describing breeding goals, selection criteria and the conditions the bees live in,  all of which influence which bees survive and thrive.

I can say that my gene pool is diverse as I continue to bring in bees (from other apiaries) to test and add to my family list, this year to include 14 lineages. The queens I sell are daughters of those time tested and reliable lineages in whom consistent survival and production the norm not the exception (roughly ¼ of total). Not all of my lineages produce such consistency (evidenced in progeny survival). I work with some queen lines whose production surpasses all others, but whose mite resistance is obviously lacking as gauged by the low % making it through the full season, before crashing from mite loads. I continue to propagate the best of these bees with the belief that in isolation, I may be able to cross these with drones from mite resistant stock.I have acquired a location that may fit these needs and am making crosses there this season (2015)

Simplified Breeding goals:

The bees must winter where I live (zone 5). I don’t migrate to the south for winter

Bees must thrive without treatments of any kind.

Selection criteria: Breeders are:

          • – the colonies (same queen) who survive 2 winters
          • and whom have  made surplus honey crops without showing any disease of brood or bees,
          • nor suffered from excess mite loads. (it should be said I dont count mites but rather gauge performance based on the large scale I.e the overall hive activity. More on this)
          • Docility
          • Continuity of lineage. Able to supercede and self propagate.
          • Appropriate and timely allocation of winter stores.

It should first be stated that although my goals with my bees include combination-breeding, I have not as yet, in the strictest sense bred, but have only selected. The difference between the two is crucial. Breeding involves control over both the queen selection and the drones she mates with. This is accomplished by Artificial insemination, isolated mating apiaries, drone saturation and some other less known methods.

Selection is part of breeding, in other words assessing and evaluating the outcomes of various crosses and choosing the colonies to further propagate. So far in my first 5 years, I have only selected the outcomes of open matings, which by their nature afford no control over the drones the queen mates with. Progress in this way is very slow, but not impossible with regards to attaining breeding goals. In fact, Ive been increasingly encouraged by the results, as relates to disease resistance, mite resistance, and performance. On the other hand, in some cases, I have observed a lessening of valuable traits in some queen lineages after a few generations, exhibited in decreased vitality, production, and increased disease in the progeny.

What is Propolis and What are it’s Uses

What is Propolis and What are it’s Uses

7614446_orig Here is a little insight into Propolis and it’s uses. I am a plant person and use plants and  herbs for healing and nourishment. In fact, the plants are such a huge part of human health on all levels; emotional, physiological, and within our spirit. So we now begin to see the truth of a separation from ourselves and the world, leading  to dis-ease or dis-harmony, fracturing, complete dissemblance. Fortunately, the plants are, as always, here offering their healing, their kinship.

As far as propolis is concerned, the reading and research, (mostly from other countries) explains propolis from the perspective of the physical parts, phyto-chemistry, ancient anecdotal formula’s and cures, uses, how the bees use propolis, etc. (All valuable and good starting points) However, with regard to plant, bee or any other medicine, it is your body (and a quiet mind), your hands in the dirt, the synthesis of the totality of your consciousness that facilitates direct and complete communication; a tool our ancestors used, a knowing.  Modern investigation, (while having value) consistently bears out what was already known.  I know beyond the shadow of a doubt that the storehouse of medical information passed down about plants, bees, living in intimacy with our world was not trial and error based. Instead, direct relationship developed an ability or an understanding that transcended rationalism ,(i.e complete and direct information from the plant,animal, bee, water,etc ). From which sense based epistemologies develop such as Gaia,a mother earth that is alive and cares for us in every way. (Even the DNA double helix came to a researcher in a dream!) And yes, I have these experiences…. Please read Stephen Buhner,  ” The Lost Language of Plants”.

So, let’s talk propolis. As a basis of understanding, I like to include a context of how propolis fits in to the whole picture. To me, honeybees (and all pollinators), weave threads as they touch herb and tree. Indeed they consummate the marriage of plants ensuring more plants, and thus life as we know it. For all life is plant based. Plants sublime the vapor of the sun into flesh, expressing in myriad forms the healing of sun, earth, water, the void. So then the honeybee touches, caresses and exchanges with the plants, and in this a gift to our people is made. Of course, pollinators are making medicine for the land, for the plants, and for other creatures. A concentration, a distillation, of plant medicine, of love. This is seen in all the bees make, all they do.

          How is propolis made? First, I find it important to have a look at what is going on inside the honeybee’s body. The bee’s gut houses a community of bacteria that in function are like our own gut flora, that is essential to optimal health. These microbes are at the seat of the honeybees medicine, for it is they who originate the enzymes and facilitate the synergy we see in the medicine the bees make. As the bees gather resin, pollen, and nectar they combine their saliva (rich in enzymes and magic) with the resin (or pollen granule, or nectar) thus beginning the transformation from raw plant material (already medicinal) into something tangibly more potent, and or nutritive. The resin and/ or pollen granules so wetted are attached to the “baskets” (hooks or skewers) on the rear legs.  The resins are returned to the hive and it is worked into propolis. Here is where the literature is non detailed and my observations are limited with regards to the exacting details of propolis formation.

Try to stick with this, as I find it important to track these components of propolis, each medicinal on their own, and the subsequent synergy found in the mixture we call propolis. It should be noted that there are as yet unidentified compounds in all bee hive products. Scientists have tried to duplicate propolis based on a rational reductionistic assumption that by reducing to individual parts we can understand the world around us. While the product they made exhibited mild antibiotic influence, it paled in comparison to the work of the bee.

The physical makeup of propolis shows 50-55 % resins and balsams, up to 30% wax, 8-10% essential oils, 5-10% pollen, and 5% solid organic matter.*(1) However, these are so variable that %’s are not so important as the understanding of the constituents and their medicinal properties, all variable depending on plants region and time of year. So that Brazilian propolis looks a lot different than my northern propolis, but for the hive , it is the same functionally. Honeybees in cities have been found to make propolis from road tar….Not something I’d take but on the other hand the bees are fitting it to their needs.

Plant resins. What is a resin, and why do some tree/plant produce it (not all of them do)? Resins are gummy in consistency and typically aromatic. They are produced in a protective capacity, either to protect leaf buds or when the tree is wounded( i.e a bandage or skin). These resins are in and of themselves medicinal and utilitarian ,collected and extracted in various solvents by herbalists and indigenous people since the beginning.

For instance, in my area, some typical resin sources are from the Poplar family such as Cottonwood, Balsam Poplar, Quaking Aspen, and others such as Sumac and Birch. In the cases of the poplar family, the resins (buds) are analgesic, anti-inflammatory, expectorant, soothing to sore muscles, antiseptic, and rich in anti-oxidants, and aid in wound healing. Some questions I ask myself:. What roles do these trees play in healing or nourishing the earth where it grows? or Why do these trees grow here? What is the history of the land where it grows? Scalar perspective. How do the qualities of this medicine affect the ecology where it grows.? or conversely How does this ecology affect the medicine? Research constituents; animal, human, insect interdependence, plant companions and successional relationship. What does the tree sound like in a northern wind? What items can be made from the bark or wood? How did the indigenous people in the area regard and use these trees? What time of year are the medicine collected and how are they processed.,. and on and on

Beeswax is made entirely by plant nectar (sugar water also). This amazing substance is indeed the skeletal structure of the beehive. The consumption of fresh nectar (in surplus) stimulates bees to produce wax flakes along their abdomen. The bees then gather and hang from the frame or structure and pass wax flakes to each other to build the honeycombs. This hanging of course always produces combs that are “level” or perpendicular to the ground.  Beeswax forms the individual cells in which bees are raised, as well as the combs where honey is stored. Wax is used to seal honeycombs when they are cured. I have found these wax cappings are stimulating to digestion. Beeswax is rich in antioxidants (vitamin A), is protective, humectant, antibacterial, to name a few. Burning beeswax releases the sunshine and the light from the darkness (beehives are dark inside) and have a soothing aroma. Sounds like a creation story…..

         Bee Pollen: Bees visit richly scented, flowering, medicinal herbs and gather the male part of the flower, the pollen. Wetted with enzyme rich saliva, the pollen dust is compacted into granules (squarish to ovoid in shape) with a dough like consistency to fit into the hook of the pollen basket. Once in the hive, the pollen is compacted into cells adjacent to larval staged bee brood. Here it will be consumed by nurse bees, who consume it to stimulate the production of worker jelly. The protein in pollen varies from 8 to 40 % and is exceptionally high in water soluble vitamins. It contains vitamin A, C, D, E, B1, B2, B6, Niacin, biotin, inositol, and folic acid. Pollen contains minerals such as calcium, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, iron, manganese, silicon, sulphur, chlorine, copper and zinc. It also contains 27 trace elements, rutin (vitamin P),flavinoids, and carotenoids.(5) Pollen is perhaps the most concentrated single source of complete protein and rutin on the planet. Rutin strengthens capillaries, minimizes bleeding, encourages coagulation, making it useful  for those who bruise easily.(5) Scientists have confirmed a human can live on bee pollen and water alone! Bee pollen has been found to be antibiotic, antiviral, astringent, relaxant, tonic, and  nutritive. It has been found useful in the treatment of allergies, bacterial infections, asthma, capillary weakness, chronic fatigue, immune depression, menopausal symptoms, nutritional disorders, prostate, chronic cystitis, and urinary tract infections.(5)

I haven’t yet found much to describe the exact process of how this pollen is added to the resin. One observation stated that bees made propolis even in confinement ( ahh bee experiments) suggesting the pollen addition maybe coming from inside the bee. It makes sense to me that bees are adding the pollen from their gut as they manipulate the warmed propolis with front claws and inject pollen into the tacky resin. Haven’t found many direct observations on propolis mixing yet. I have seen the bees working their tongues into resin. Pollen is a major food source for bees and their young, and in conjunction with honey, provides all the energy and nutrition for their incredibly demanding and joyous life. The color of propolis is influenced by the color of the pollen used in it.

            Essential Oils:  Do the bees gather essential oils from specific aromatic plants , or are they the oils from the resin? or from the pollen ? Qualities of these oils are penetrating, antiseptic, and cleansing.

How do the bees use propolis? As you will undoubtedly see, honey bees use propolis in various ways and these functions relate directly to the actions in the human body. In each of these capacities the bees make specific formulations for the work at hand. In other words the propolis varies within the hive ,some waxier, some more bitter(er), some gummier, etc.

          Skin: Honey bees shellac all surfaces inside the hive with a patina of propolis, As the hive expands and grows so does the extent of the patina. Likened to a skin, this shellacking creates a protective barrier, anti-microbial, waterproofing, anti-fungal and mold. The bees feet are then constantly in touch with a disinfecting surface. This layer is very thin as you will notice when the fresh wood of your bees home will in time completely change color and smell. This kind of propolis contains a low wax content, richer in resins and aromatics, and mixed to be spreadable. I equate this functionally to the immune system.

          Connective: The honeybees attach everything together in the hives. The frames  are connected together, and in wild hives the wax combs are attached to the top of the cavity with wax and reinforced with propolis.

          Circulatory: Unwanted holes and entrance size are plugged to maintain  circulating air currents, temperature, and humidity (homeostasis) i.e desired internal atmosphere. In my hives (Langstroth) the bees form corrals on the top of the frames allowing air movement (or inhibiting it) where they desire. These corrals are also used to trap other insects (such as wax moth and hive beetles).

          Protective: Unwanted organic matter too large to remove is customarily mummified in propolis. In the case of mice stung to death, they are encased in propolis. My observations show the purification of the carcass with regards to organs while the skin and bones remain unaffected by bacterial assimilation. The entrance of the hive is typically well propolised to ensure disinfection of returning foragers. In the brood combs, the wax cells are polished with propolis to sterilize before the next young bee is grown in the same cell.

Properties of Propolis

Propolis is analgesic, anti-septic, anti-bacterial, anti-viral (colds and flu), anti-inflammatory, anti-allergenic, anti-ulcer, anti-fungal, anti-mold, effective against some Candida sp. anti-rheumatic, is effective against acne, mildly styptic, halitosis, gingivitis, cavities, burns (3rd degree with honey), immune system stimulator, all infections of the skin including antibiotic resistant bacteria. Used to treat sore throats (best in combination), cancers, ear diseases, intestinal infections, pneumonias, eczema, arthritis, lung disease, stomach virus, headache, Parkinson’s disease, bile infections, sclerosis, circulation deficiencies, warts, conjunctivitis, and hoarseness.(3)

Phyto-chemical constituents: Flavonoids, antioxidants, organic acids.


The earliest written herbal tomes indicate propolis for a broad spectrum of uses. Pliny’s volumes, Hippocrates, Egyptian hieroglyphs, all the oldest cultures left a written record of its myriad uses, and its sacred nature.


 Anti-bacterial: Shows activity against, Streptococcus sp., Staphylococcus sp. (all 56 strains), Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Clostridium, Corynebacterium diptheriae, exceptional in the use of sore throats, gum irritations, acne, and any infections of wounds.  (for this combines well with herbal antibiotic powders such as Barberry root bark, Juniper leaf, Usnea Lichen, Bidens, Alchornea, or Sida) Also considered superb for “unhealable” external and deep wounds when combined with raw honey. Unparalleled healer of burns in combination with honey. (Tincture mixed in honey). There is no bacterial, viral, fungal or mold resistance to propolis, honey, or herbal antibiotics.

The bacteriostatic activity of propolis is due in part to the components galangin, caffeic acid, and ferulic acid.(4) I would say that the entire makeup from consistency to aroma is anti-bacterial. Unlike pharmaceutical antibiotics, propolis discriminately targets infectious bacteria only, leaving beneficial bacteria alone. This point bears full investigation….

Antiviral properties: Propolis inhibits influenza virus’ (I assume all of them), herpes 1 and 2, warts (this is an incomplete list and bears full investigation). The rich content of bioflavinoids in propolis hinders viral reproduction, effectively inhibiting release of infectious material into healthy cells. Propolis stimulates phagocytosis and speeds detoxification. The content of the virus-fighting protein, properdin, rises in the blood and the detoxification power of certain antibodies is accelerated.(6)

Anti-cancer:  Romanian studies using propolis found inhibitory effect on cellular mitosis of malignant cells  Because propolis holds back replication of malignant cells while nourishing healthy cells around them , it can give the body time to recoup and recover its normal healthy condition(7) This study on people with leukemia and their subsequent remission after administration of propolis prompted (40 years later, in 1991) the Institute of Cancer Research of Columbia University to study CAPE (Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester, directly extracted from Propolis) in the inhibition of adenovirus (5E1A) and chemical viral carcinogenesis in mouse mammary-tumor virus. According to the university’s researchers “The invention provides a method substantially inhibiting the growth of transformed cells without substantially inhibiting the growth of normal cells…The transformed cells may comprise carcinoma or melanoma cells. In the preferred embodiments, the subject is a human and the transformed cells are human carcinoma or melanoma cells, such as human breast carcinoma cells, colon carcinoma cells, renal carcinoma cells, or melanoma cells”(8)

According to John Diamond, MD, propolis strengthens the thymus gland and thus our life energy. (6)

Preventative: Propolis can be taken daily in powder or tincture to strengthen vitality, stamina and endurance. While nourishing our bodies it aids in circulation (capillary strength), nutrifying, supporting the immune system, and eradicating malignant cell growth. I prefer powdering the propolis and adding it to  my raw honey for daily intake along with adaptogenic herbs such as Ashwagandha, Astragalus, Eleutherococcus, and American Ginseng

Solvents: Methods of ingestion and or external use

Tincture :Pure grain alcohol 70% or higher (1:5 external, 1:4 internal)

: Water: infusions Decoctions, cold infusions. Not fully investigated. Preliminary observations indicate aqueous solution less active against bacteria, but lends itself to eyewash, mouthwash, scalp rinse. I haven’t done any testing of aqueous extracts yet.

: Powder.: best ingested with raw honey

Glycerite: I’ve done it. Requires some steps

Powder for open wounds

Vinegar: No

Oils: Not extractable in oil

Products I make: Raw Honey, Raw Honey with Propolis powder, Raw Honey with Propolis tincture, Raw Honey infused with Beebread (another paper), Propolis/Honey Salves (antiseptic wound healer, herpes sores, warts, ), Propolis/Honey/ Burn paste, Propolis throat spray, Propolis tincture, Wound powder (with propolis and other antibacterial herbs. This powder also effective against athletes foot) Lotion for athletes foot with black walnut and propolis.

I always like to combine propolis in honey. They go together and the honey facilitates ingestion.

written by Tim Mcfarline

Recommended reading:

Royden Brown’s “The Beehive Product Bible”

Stephen Buhner  “Sacred and Herbal Healing Beers

ibid   “The Lost Language of Plants”

Eva Crane           “The Archaeology of Beekeeping”

Ray Hill                 “Propolis .The Natural Antibiotic”

C.Leigh Broadhurst ” Health and Healing with Bee Products”


(1) Hill, Ray. Propolis: The Natural Antibiotic

(2) Broadhurst, C.Leigh. Health and Healing with Bee Products

(3) Aagard, Dr.K. Lund. Propolis -Natural Substance, The way to health

in Brown, Royden. BeeHive Product Bible

(4)Brown,Royden. The Bee Hive Product Bible

(5)Buhner, Stephen. Sacred and Herbal Healing Beers

(6)Elkins, Rita. Bee Pollen, Royal Jelly, Propolis and Honey

(7)Popovici and Oita. Influence of Extracts of Propolis on Mitosis. in Brown, Royden.

(8)Rao, C.V., D.Desai, B.Kaul et al.Effect of caffeic acid esters on carcinogen induced mutagenicity and human colon adenocarcinoma cell growth.



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